the Keris: Weapon and spirituality Javanese symbol

In the world of Pusaka, this term which includes all the precious goods, kept from generation to generation in the family clan, keris holds a place of honor.

For the Indonesians especially Javanese, the keris is not only a weapon but a true sacred spiritual object. It is considered to be twice its owner, it protects it, contains its soul and can replace it during official ceremonies, even on the day of its marriage. The keris is worn on the back, wedged under the belt of the traditional costume in order to protect its wearer from evil spirits who could attack from behind. The keris is worn by men and women, although the female keris is shorter and lighter. For women, they worn the short and tiny keris on the front hide by long and wide fabric belts are used to hold the long cloth used traditionally

The symbolism of its form

The general shape of this dagger is very figurative and belongs to traditional Javanese iconography: the warangka, upper part of the scabbard, has the shape of a boat on which stands a character represented by the handle of the keris. The narrow double-edged blade, which gives the aesthetic quality to the keris, symbolizes the naga (mythical dragon) either at rest when the blade is straight or in motion when the blade is wavy (called “luk”), the number of undulations ranging from three to thirteen and always odd. Note that the wavy blade is more destructive than the straight blade.

The sheath called sarong in exotic wood, richly decorated with precious stones, gold and ivory is the element that allows to recognize its origin.

Javanese keris is the most elaborate and the most richly decorated with a very wide variety of shapes and patterns.

The forge of Keris: creation and spirituality

The art of forging keris was not given to just anyone. Only a pandai keris could accomplish such a task and few have obtained the supreme title of empu. Empus are highly respected craftsmen in Javanese society, attached to royal courts and possessing knowledge of literature, history and occult sciences.

Creating a keris is a long and complicated process. It all starts with the choice of an auspicious date in the Javanese calendar while taking into account the date of birth of the sponsor because the blade must reflect his personality to perfection. After determining the auspicious day, the empu begins a white diet based on white rice and water for two to three months in order to purify his body and free his mind and thus obtain the necessary inspiration. The fast will continue during the whole realization of the dagger, accompanied by prayers and meditations to remain pure and serene and to avoid movements of humour which could transpose in the keris and and beyond influence its owner later when it wears it. A good keris had to have yoni, an invisible magic power.

To make a royal Javanese keris, one of the components is a part of meteorite that fell in the Prambanan region in 1784. About one gram of meteoritic stone with a high nickel content is added to the folded iron sheet and folded tens even hundreds of times with great precision. The pattern is therefore obtained by superimposing very contrasting layers of metal and to finish the blade is coated with a mixture of arsenic and lemon juice in order to bring out the silvery white pattern, the nickel being very white.

Common keris are forged with metal of “earth” origin, or even industrial alloys.

Manufacturing according to the traditional method is an art which, unfortunately, is disappearing nowadays due to the lack of “sacred” raw materials and lack of know-how.

Javanese proverb: a man must have five things on earth: a Kris, a horse, a house, a bird and a woman. 

Indonesian keris include Javanese keris has been on the list of intangible cultural heritage of humanity since 2008.

East Nusa Tenggara: The Pasola and Nyale tradition

Pasola and Nyale tradition

The Pasola tradition is a tradition carried out by the Sumba tribe on Sumba Island, precisely in West Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara. A game of dexterity with each other throwing a javelin made of wood. Uniquely this game is carried out between two groups of horseback who are running fast. This tradition is part of the traditional ceremony of the Merapu religion (Sumba local religion) which is usually held every year between February and March in turns by four villages (Kodi, Lamboya, Wonokaka and Gaura).

The name Pasola comes from the word “Sola”. Sola is a type of wood javelin which is used to throw each other off a horse by two opposing groups. Pasola is a tradition game that combines the agility of riding a horse and throwing a javelin which is carried out as a form of welcoming the new year and harvesting in Merapu beliefs.

When the Pasola Tradition carried out?

The Pasola Tradition will begin with the Nyale Customary Ceremony which is a ritual in the belief of Merapu as a form of gratitude for the gifts that are obtained. The Nyale ceremony is marked by the arrival of the harvest season and abundant sea worms (Nyale) or out on the coast. The determination of the start of the Nyale Ritual is also very unique, there are several conditions that must be met.

At first the Rato (Tribal Leader) predicted the release of nyale in the morning, then in the afternoon by the Assembly of the Rato examined its shape and color. If the sea worms are fat and healthy and colorful, they believe it is a good sign and the harvest will succeed this year. Conversely, havoc is believed to come if the nyale obtained is thin and fragile.

Pasola held or not depends on the nyale obtained. As for the implementation, Pasola took place in a wide expanse of fields witnessed by all residents from both competing groups and the general public. The Pasola tradition has now become a unique entertainment that is able to attract many Aasing and local tourists who all enliven it.

Pasola was followed by more than 100 young men from each group, they were armed with a spear tipped with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Although blunt, this game cannot be separated from the victims. The matter is believed in Merapu’s belief, that the victim has received punishment from God for having made a mistake or sin.

Pasola’s game is very interesting, here the audience can see first-hand the Sumba Knights who are facing each other which then spur the horse agile while throwing a javelin at the enemy. The knights deftly avoided the opponent’s javelin.

The event was increasingly noisy by the whinny and thumping of thunderous hooves and shouts of participants and spectators. Uniquely if there is blood flowing, it is considered beneficial for soil fertility, which means the harvest will be successful. As for death, it is believed that there had previously been a violation of adat norms.

The Pasola tradition is not just mere entertainment. This is a cultural heritage which is a form of devotion and obedience to the ancestors. A religious culture as an expression of the core religiosity of Merapu religion. Besides that, it also functions as an interwoven fraternity of the Sumbanese community, especially between the two groups of participants.

Furthermore Pasola is also an expression of gratitude and expression of community joy associated with abundant harvests. With the growing popularity of this tradition, the progress of Sumba tourism has also increased. This attraction has become a magnet that can attract tourists to visit Sumba, both local and foreign tourists.

East Sumba: “Tenun Ikat” woven fabric

East Sumba Ikat Woven Fabric and Its Creation Process

In recent years, Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara Province has indeed risen to the surface as a favorite tourist destination for many people. Including me. Some people decide to explore Sumba cause of its special landscape, cultural even woven cloth ikat.

Lambanapu and Mauliru  are villages of ikat woven fabric craftsmen whose manufacturing process uses weavers instead of machines with natural coloring. Starting from the cotton flower until becoming a beautiful Sumba woven patterned woven cloth, everything be done manually and requires a significant amount of time.

In Lambanapu, we go to Mama Dan house, one of the Sumbanese cloth craftswomen. Esy, Mama Dan’s daughter invited us to pick cotton flower. We were ready with shoes and hats. We followed the path, through the streams of clear streams and the horses that were resting in the shade of trees. They sometimes turn to us who are passing by, the horse look not surprised with people.  We also passed several rice fields and fields belonging to residents. Until suddenly the cotton trees stood tall before us.

In Sumba, mothers or children usually collect cotton flowers that are spun into yarn. The manual method of spinning yarn from cotton by hand called pahudur.

First, collect cotton from the flower and then twist into long strands. From these strands, cotton twists are tangible like thick yarn. We can roll it in a spool of yarn at this stage. Believe me, the process is actually not as simple as this. If you don’t have experience, the work of twisting and turning them into threads will take a long time. And, cotton is prone to breaking. If you break up, you have to twist from the start.

On the porch of Mama Dan’s house, I watched the ina (mama-mama) twist cotton very quickly. They are already experienced.

The typical color of indigo-colored sumba fabric does not use textile dyes as we know it, but instead uses natural dyes from nila plants. At first glance nila plants such as useless weeds, small leafy plants with small branches that branch off when mixed with lime will produce indigo colors.

Tips for those who want to help the craftsmen pull the nila plant, prepare gloves so that the hands do not hurt. Also prepare a hat because it is likely we will be in the blazing sun for a long time.

The next process is the process of spinning yarn into ball-shaped yarns called Kabukul. From the ball of yarn, the next step is pamening, arranged the threads in the loom (wooden frame, wanggi), to make easier tied threads based on the desired motif. The process took about a full day to complete one piece of cloth.

After the yarn arranged in the loom, the yarn divided into many threads that are evenly distributed, and then tied.

The process of binding these threads called hondu. In the past, the threads tied using a gewang rope (kalita), or a rope made from a palm tree. However, now, many ikat weaving craftsmen replace gewang ropes with plastic or neat ropes. The threads be bound tightly  not exposed the dyes . Not as easy as it seems, treated the string  carefully. Don’t too forced, it will brok, but if not tight, the dye can coloring it and damage the results of the ikat cloth.

After the binding process completed, next process is immersing the yarns in a natural dye mixture. The blue dye (indigo) comes from nila plants and red color comes from noni plants or kombu roots.

For strenghten the color, they ussually add a bit lime betel and hazelnut to the mixture of dye color. After soaking for overnight, drying the threads in the sun for 2-3 days.  Process immersion repeated 5-10 times to get the desired color depth.

After all the color immersion process is complete, removed the straps. Here the motifs from the ikat cloth begin to appear.  To shape the motif as desired, the color yarn be arranged on the loom and weaving process carried out to produce a beautiful fabric.

Walking around the village in the day, my journey in Lambanapu and Mauliru, from one craftsman to another, opened my eyes even wider that the East Sumba ikat woven fabric is a priceless cultural treasure.

The process and effort of creating a complicated and delicate work makes the Sumba fabric has a high value and is worth to having it.

Long ears Dayak women in Borneo

the woman with big ears in Borneo

Dayak people with dilated lobes are said to be only one hundred living along the Mahakam River. This is on the island of Borneo.

This 920 km river has always been a vital artery and the only means of communication for residents living in this remote area of ​​East Kalimantan [Kalimantan is the name given to the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. This region includes five provinces: East, West, Central, South and North Kalimantan]. It is on this river that depends on the flow or not of human movement and transportation of goods from Samarinda, the provincial capital, to the most remote hamlets.

When the water level rises during the rainy season, navigation becomes very risky, because the river carries many tree trunks that can hit the boat at any time. But when the level drops, in the dry season, the ship can no longer pass, because of the risk of crashing into rocks. along the journey from Long Bagun to the headwaters, the natural beauty of the dazzling scenery is crossed: giant karst walls, green forests, bird concerts, dizzying waterfalls.

The Dayaks are divided into several ethnic groups, one of which is the Bahau Dayak ethnic group. They built huts in their fields on the banks of this river with clear water. Bahak Dayak is a sub-group of Dayaks who live along the Mahakam upstream. To go to their fields, which are quite far from the village of Long Isun, they use a boat attached to a propeller motor which is the main means of transportation for Dayaks.

The ring was hung since the first week of life

A few weeks after birth, the lobes of Dayak girls are pricked with bamboo points and sticks inserted into the hole to keep them open. They are then replaced with thicker sticks, so the hole grows larger as the child grows.

When approaching adolescence, a copper ring hung in his ear. These rings are called sangs in the Dayak Bahau language. Every year Hisangs are added to add weight to the lobes. It is under this ever-increasing weight that the ears are stretched out. Among Dayak Kenyah, the same operation was carried out on women belonging to the nobility. Once perforated, the two lobes are connected to each other by a wire, to create tension and make the hole widen. Belaung – a term used by Dayak Kenyah to designate this ring – is hung as soon as the baby grows.

Is lobe lengthening a specific Dayak practice?

The rings in the ears are found practically everywhere in Southeast Asia. Dayaks are distinguished by the number of these rings and the length of the lobes they carry. But the practice falls under canons of beauty which are far from being limited to Kalimantan (think, for example, of giraffe women, whose rings lengthen their necks). These are aesthetic practices, but also markers of social status. Among the Dayaks, like everywhere else, jewelry is a sign of wealth.

But among the Dayaks, the modification brought about by these jewels is spectacular and probably painful…

Dayak women do not speak of the pain they may have felt when their ears were pierced. Presumably because, as with little Western girls, this is done at an early age, which does not really leave any memories. Then the progressive elongation is not painful. Little girls learn to run and play by supporting the weight of the rings with their hands. Tattooing, on the other hand, is often described as very painful.

When did the custom of long ears start to disappear?

At the time of the “confrontation” – as the conflict with the Malay in the 1960s is called – the Indonesian army recruited the Dayaks as porters, guides or combatants, which generated interference between the Javanese world – dominant Muslim of the centralized state and these peripheral tribes, hitherto isolated. Shortly thereafter, primary school was established in all villages and the teachers aroused the shame of the little girls wearing big ears. This rather brutal opening to the outside world led to their abandonment.

It seems that the tradition is currently arousing renewed curiosity. Is it correct ?

The village of Pampang was created for tourists. Its inhabitants give dance performances, give blowgun demonstrations. Some old ladies with long ears get paid to be photographed. It is known and visitors tend more and more to turn away from this type of folkloric staging.

We must be careful, in general, to focus too much on the long ears. They are only a marginal part of these endangered cultures. In the villages today, the Dayaks all have smartphones. There are karaoke bars there. These villages are already globalized.

INDONESIAN BATIK, A WORK OF ART ON FABRICS

Batik is a Javanese word, which has the same origin as the word tiktik, which means point. The origins of Batik go back more than 1,000 years: it is a technique of printing fabrics made by hand, and practiced in many countries such as China, India, Burkina Faso and of course Indonesia.

The Batik technique was widely promoted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries due to its strong presence in Art Nouveau. Today, many visual artists are updating this technique.

The Batik creation process uses a unique skill called “savings”. This practice involves protecting the parts of the fabric that you do not want to color with hot wax, then drawing the patterns or dipping the fabric in dye baths. Then repeat this operation as many times as there are colors present on the fabric. Then the wax is removed with an iron or by soaking in boiling water. We then obtain a patterned fabric where different colors blend.

The diversity of patterns is a reflection of the different influences that Indonesia has undergone. From Arabic calligraphy to Chinese motifs to European floral art, the art of Batik is an illustration of Indonesian culture and expresses the creativity and spirituality of its people.

Indonesian Batik was inscribed in 2009 on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Javanese Batik (from Java Island) is the finest and most elaborate of all. It is thanks to the Javanese Batik that this style of textile painting reached its peak. Java still hosts today the highest places of traditional Batik manufacturing, where two main styles stand out depending on the region: that of the center of the island with the royal cities of Solo, Banyumas and Yogyakarta, that of the north coast represented by the cities of Pekalongan, Cirebon and Lasem. We also find the styles of Pelambang and Jambi, two regions of Indonesia that have been influenced by Javanese.

Batik is present throughout the life of Indonesians: we find Batik specially decorated for births, mourning or to attend special events such as weddings, theater, artistic performances. There are also Batiks for pregnant women, while there are much more sober Batiks with patterns suitable for everyday life, which are frequently worn in the professional or university thousands.

Indonesian batik today

Although there is still a very lively African “Batik”, the Javanese artisans are today the most skillful and refined regulators of this method from the depths of the ages. The secrets of manufacturing Indonesian batik have been taught there from generation to generation, and family workshops are becoming scarce. The finesse of the designs and the depth of the colors are exceptional.

Defense of Indonesian craft batik

The knowledge of batik, demanding rigor and patience, is unfortunately endangered today by the printing industry.

Preserving the original technique of Indonesian batik and Javanese culture.

Equipment :

  • a square of white cotton fabric
  • a wooden frame to stretch the fabric
  • beeswax and paraffin
  • a gas stove to melt them
  • a “canting” (between the small spoon and the pen) to apply the wax

For the unique pieces of Indonesian batik, often made on silk, the drawing is traced with “canting” pencil with hot wax tank. This tool is also used in the production of Indonesian batiks to cover the parts to hide during the different dyeing passes. – baths of natural or chemical dyeing.

  • cotton swabs to apply the dye
  • soda to fix the dye
  • a hell of a lot of patience …

First phase:

The drawing. When choosing a pattern to make in batik, you must anticipate what will be represented in solid colors, and what will be represented by lines. And anticipate what you want to protect with wax (the light parts) and what you want to expose to the dye (the dark parts). We draw in pencil on the tight fabric.

Second phase:

Application of hot wax. We take the right dose of melted wax in its tank. We drain, we clean the end of the canting and … We draw directly on the fabric. The speed of the movement depends on the flow of wax, therefore the thickness of the line.

And there, it spoils … I have dexterity with a pencil, with a brush, with a pen … But there, you have to relearn EVERYTHING! I make spots everywhere, it drips, the line is irregular … It’s very frustrating! I think that it is necessary to train to make its ranges to master the handling of the tool, before launching for the first time on a large fabric. Otherwise, we pull our hair out.

I also used stamps, it is a copper stencil with spectacular patterns. They allow several patterns to be produced quickly on the surface of the fabric. For the batik artisanal series, always limited in quantities, the pattern is applied, printed with wax thanks to a copper pad, the design of which is made in fine and multiple strips worked and welded together. Some stamps are real works of art in themselves. The tincture of Indonesian batiks

Third phase:

The first coloring (with cotton swab or by soaking). We apply the pigments to the cotton swab, a little blind because the pigment solutions have a different color from the final rendering. Or we can proceed by dyeing the colors from the lightest to the darkest.

Again, you have to anticipate: Some colors can only be obtained by superimposing 2 dyes. Ex: Black is the result of a dark blue dye superimposed on a yellow dye!

 Fourth phase (optional):

New reserves are placed in the wax or paraffin (double-sided on the fabric) to protect the colors which will remain as they are. Ex: Red, sky blue, some yellows.

Wax or paraffin. Cracks are obtained by making reserves with paraffin (more brittle) instead of wax. Once the paraffin has cooled, just crumple by hand to get the cracks. You will see on the end result.

Fifth phase:

Remove the wax, either with an iron, or by soaking in boiling water. The process is also called “in reserve of wax”, or “coloring by savings”. Complementary processes can be used: use of a hot iron (sometimes with a complex pattern: dragon for example) to remove the wax at the locations of a coloring (often to facilitate the copying of repetitive patterns) – simple breaking of the wax to obtain fine lines partial scraping to obtain gradations, etc.

Finally, we obtain a fabric in which different tones or contrasts are juxtaposed or superimposed, forming all kinds of patterns.

Mudik! Eid al-Fitr Indonesia muslim tradition

May 27, 2019

Over 19 million Indonesians are ready to travel from big city in Indonesia by road, sea and air over the weekend to celebrate the holidays of Eid al-Fitr, which begins this Sunday.

Millions of Indonesians move during Eid al-Fitr. The massive push of travelers, known as Mudik – or pulang kampung (return home) – has become an Indonesian Muslim tradition.

Just like in Jakarta, those who work in the city can only go back to their hometown during the long holiday, which is during the Eid al-Fitr holiday. So that this momentum extends and looks so developed into a phenomenon.

The media also has a big role in comparing the activities of returning home to become a mandatory tradition during Eid. With the company and government programs that facilitate the activities of returning home, this tradition has also grown and seems to be a necessity.

There are things that make migrants must carry out returning home. First going home to be a way to find blessings because they can stay in touch with family, relatives, and neighbors. This activity is also a reminder of the origin of the area for those who wander.

The homecoming tradition for nomads in the capital city also aims to demonstrate the existence of its success. As well as being a place to share with relatives who have long been left behind to share in their success overseas. Going home is also a psychological therapy utilizing the Eid al-Fitr holiday to travel after a busy year in work routines, so that when he comes to work again he has a new spirit.

But even though this Eid is a long-awaited moment, there are important things that must be prepared in advance.

The struggle to get a “TICKET” is one of the frightening specters for most people who want to go home to their hometown.

The struggle to return home is indeed not easy, we must be prepared to jostle in terminals, stations, and even airports. Even though on a normal day, these 3 places won’t be crowded.

The travelers are willing to traffic jams to pay more to Mudik Eid al-Fitr. The severity of the challenges and struggles faced by travelers, has never dampened their intention and willingness to go home.

The Mitoni: seven months pregnancy ceremony in Javanese culture

The Mitoni Ritual

Mitoni comes from a Pitu word. Pitu means the number seven, then it becomes the word Pitulungan. Pitulungan has a sense of begging for help from God. So Mitoni is a ritual which aims to implore an aid to God so that the embryo and its mother are healthy.

The Mitoni ritual, also known as Tingkeban, is performed when a woman is pregnant with her first child and has spent seven months. Generally, it is organized on Wednesday or Saturday, the 13-15 of Javanese calendar, but do not pass the date of 15.

This ceremony is organized at their home, at the woman’s parents, or at the man’s parents.

According to the theme, there are seven stages in this ceremony:

1| Sungkeman

The woman and her husband bow down to their parents to ask for the blessing that the pregnancy will go as planned until delivery.

2| Siraman or wash

Siraman means to take a bath. Its purpose is to purify the woman and the baby in her breast morally and physically.

We do it in a place that we have already prepared before with the beautiful decoration and we call it Krobongan.

The number seven becomes the symbol of the Mitoni ritual according to the theme, so it is always used at the parties of this ceremony.

To make the Siraman, we use water that is taken from seven different sources. Then, it is collected in a brass bucket, then it is sprinkled with flowers such as roses, jasmines, michelies (kantil), canangas. These various flowers symbolize purity.

Seven people are chosen to represent the other members of the family to make the Siraman.

To clean the flowers which remain on the head and also on the body of the woman, one uses the last water which put in a kendil or a jar. After that, this jar is thrown to the ground by the woman until this jar is broken. If the jar neck is in an intact state, then her baby will be a boy. But if she shatters, her baby will be a line.

3| After the siraman

The husband must put an egg in his wife’s sarong, on his stomach, then he drops it until it falls to the ground. This ritual symbolizes a hope that the baby will be born easily like this egg.

4| The Brojolan ritual

That is to say membrojolkan or to bring in a couple of cengkir (the young coconut). But first, we must draw the figure of Kamajaya and Dewi Ratih to these cengkir. His trial is like the 3rd ritual. But what does it is her mother, it is not her husband. When his mother brings in the Cengkir couple, his mother-in-law must take them. Then, his mother carries them in her arms like holding a child, then her husband takes one of the cengkir without seeing him. If he takes the cengkir that looks like Dewi Ratih, his baby will be a girl and on the contrary. After that, he cuts it using the cutter, if this cengkir is split in half, his baby will be a girl, but if he is not split in half, his baby will be a boy.

5| In the 5th ritual

The woman must change the clothing with seven fabrics which have the different pattern. The purpose of this ritual is for the baby to go to have seven goodnesses like the goodnesses of these tissues. Whenever she changes the fabric to the 6th fabric, the presenter will ask the guests is it beautiful or not? and the guests will respond “Not yet! “When she wears the 7th cloth, the guests will say” Yes, it’s beautiful! ”

The patterns of these fabrics are:

Sidomukti it symbolizes happiness, Sidoluhur it symbolizes glory, Truntum it has the symbol of sticking firmly to kindness, Parangkusuma it symbolizes the struggle to survive, Semen Rama he symbolizes a hope that his parents will always love each other, Udan Riris it symbolizes a hope that the baby will always make men happy, Cakar Ayam it symbolizes a hope so that this child will be independent. The last fabric is best. It has the Lasem or Dringin motiv. The Lasem motif is the vertical line motif, its meaning is a relationship between men and God. While the Dringin motif is the horizontal motif which signifies a relationship in society.

6| The 6th ritual

The husband must cut the jack of janur / lawe (the young coconut palm) which is surrounded by his wife’s belly with Brojol kriss, but before putting turmeric at the end. The purpose of this ritual is to cut the misfortune that will happen at the time of birth.

7| The last one is Rujakan

The woman makes the rujak of seven kinds of fruit. If the rujak taste is spicy, her baby will be a girl. Then the guests buy it with clay money, which is called kreweng.

In this ritual there are offerings that must be completed, these are:

  • Seven kinds of fruit for rujakan.
  • Seven kinds of porridge.
  • Cakes (you have to buy them at the traditional market).
  • A large tumpeng, and six small tumpeng that we put around the large tumpeng.

Javanese culture has linked with Islam, so in every ritual or ceremony there are elements of the Islam religion, because the majority of our ancestors are Muslim.

One of the Javanese rituals is the Mitoni ritual. There is a philosophy on the number seven in this ritual. The number seven is considered the sacred number, because it is taken from the number of days in a week, the number of verses from Al-Fatiha, seven layers of the sky, and seven members of the body who bow down when -we pray, these are the head, the two soles of the feet, the two soles of the hands, and the two knees. They are proven in the Qur’an.

Javanese people call the age of seven months pregnant Sapta Kawasa Jati. Sapta-tujuh-seven, kawasa-kekuasaan-power, jati-nyata-real. The meaning of this name is on the power of God, the baby can be born with good health and perfect when he is seven months old in his mother’s womb. Because according to them, at this age, the embryo has already had the full body member, it is not the premature baby. But if it is not born yet, we must do the Mitoni ritual.

According to the epistemology of java, the Mitoni ceremony contains the important elements in epistemology, these are the people, the time, and the place. More and more this ritual provokes many myths which are believed by the Javanese and even are practiced in daily life until now.

In the paradigm of Islam, Javanese traditions are considered to be deviation from religion. But according to the Javanese, they are the way to get closer to God at the same time to ensure the continuity of their culture. Its primary purpose is to simplify religious practice in the traditional way in keeping with their daily lives, this is not polytheism.